Situational crisis communication theory thesis
Crisis communication history
Learning, the last phase of CM, refers to the process of reflecting upon what was done well and what was done poorly so that the organization can handle crises better in the future Mitroff The people who receive the message will focus their attention on those factors when forming their opinions and making judgment Druckman, Timothy Coombs is Professor in Communication Studies at Eastern Illinois University, where he teaches crisis management, corporate communications, and public relations. A double-crisis is a crisis, where the original crisis is superposed by a communications-crisis, as the organization fails in managing the communication processes that should have contributed to the handling of the original crisis. Coombs suggests that because no organisation is immune to crises, all organisations should learn as much as they can about how to manage crises b: 1,3. Positivism asserts that knowledge should be based on direct apprehension of the objective world via empirically verified causal explanations. The applied research in this book should make crisis communication more effective.
Coombs asserts that the research using SCCT relies on experimental methods rather than case studies. A crisis may also be the result of some undesirable, and often banal, situation that may have a negative impact on the organization in some respect Fagerli and Johansen There are key activities that must transpire after the crisis.
Pearson and Clair 60 suggests that: An organizational crisis is a low-probability, high-impact event that threatens the viability of the organization and is characterized by ambiguity of cause, effect, and means of resolution, as well as by a belief that decisions must be made swiftly.
To be ethical, crisis managers must begin their efforts by using communication to address the physical instructing information and psychological adjusting information concerns of the victims Coombs d: However, a systematic, integrative process of CM is a proper and attainable goal.
The first research tradition, they explain, is the text-oriented or rhetorical tradition where the primary interest of study is what an organization actually communicates verbally or in writing when facing a crisis.
Effective crisis management
It is no longer enough for any organization to consider merely its own crisis management 13 14 interests in isolation from the environment. However, the case studies reviewed points to something that the theory does not address. The uncertainty surrounding a crisis situation creates pressures for explanation or accounts of why the crisis has occurred, and the actions necessary to resolve it Dutton Crisis containment 17 18 focuses on the organisation s crisis response. The model describes a reality that has been validated by independent case studies, aside from the notable research activities of the author. Successful organizations are those that communicate openly and accurately to their multiple audiences immediately after a crisis occur Seeger et al. Although crises can have devastating effects on the organization and its stakeholders, these events can also be resolved positively. The empirical research from SCCT provides a set of guidelines on how crisis managers can use crisis response strategies to protect a reputation from the ravages of a crisis. Relying on single case studies and untested assumptions, limit our understanding of how people respond to crisis and CRS and weakens the field of crisis management Coombs a: ; Coombs d: Ambiguity demands to be resolved, and organizations must expend extra effort and resources when crisis ambiguity increases Coombs b:
It is only after this foundation is established that crisis managers should turn their attentions to reputational assets. In the context-oriented or strategic tradition, the most 21 22 influential theories are in the fields of CM, reputation management and public relations Johansen and Frandsen The first step in assessing the reputational threat is to determine the initial crisis responsibility attached to a crisis.
Coombs claims that the best learning experience for CM is a real crisis a:. The framing effect occurs when a communicator selects certain factors to emphasize.
Coombs suggests that because no organisation is immune to crises, all organisations should learn as much as they can about how to manage crises b: 1,3.
based on 119 review