The magnesium Mg concentration is calculated by subtracting concentration of Ca from total concentration of Ca and Mg.NH3 presence could alter the color of the water. Dendrogram of several parametric combinations Additional file 1 : Fig S20—S24 were plotted showing Hierarchical Cluster Analysis using agglomeration schedule and centroid clustering. The TDS in this study exhibited a wide variation with a minimum value of It becomes unstable when this limit exceeds and leads to laxative effect on human system with excess of magnesium Subramani et al. Acidic pH of water may be due to the dissolved carbon dioxide and organic acids from decay and subsequent leaching of plant materials [ 24 ]. The milky nature of water from these communities may result from possible underground clay contamination. The colour of water samples from Chabere and Suleteng communities pointed to a possible contamination from surface water runoffs since water from these communities were also found to contain faecal coliforms.
The highest concentration of sulfates Alkalinity in itself is not harmful to human being, but in large quantity, alkalinity imparts bitter taste to water and may cause eye irritation [ 6 ].
Only one sample showed greater value than WHO guidelines.
In winter season, the average value of calcium ion was Additionally, the contamination of groundwater with iron and manganese in industrial corridor is high and must be addressed.
The origin of turbidity may be clay particles, sewage solids, silt and sand washings, organic and biological sludge and some other factors. The average potassium in the groundwater of the region was found to be High sulfate content may be due to breakdown of organic substances of weathered soils, human activities, use of fertilizers and sulfate leaching Miller ; Craig and Anderson This could be attributed to the environmental temperature as well as other climatic conditions prevailing in the study area at the time of sampling.
Mean and median value of nitrate was below the permissible limit 0.This low concentration of nitrate observed in this study is in agreement with the findings of Mueller et al. Analysis revealed that the total hardness reported in our study was higher as compared to earlier studies Sharma Fluoride occurs as natural constituent and is one of the main trace elements in groundwater. In the aquifer, groundwater comes in contact with soils, rocks and minerals that naturally contain Fe and Mn and dissolve them, releasing their constituents, including Fe and Mn, to the water [ 27 , 28 ]. The pH of all the groundwater samples of the study area was within the permissible limits while the high turbidity exceeding the desirable levels were observed in most of the samples. Double distilled water was used for preparing the solutions and blank throughout the analysis. A comparison of groundwater data with soil chemistry suggests that the concentration of iron in the ground water is derived from soils due to geogenic processes. Physically, hardness could be referred to as the resistance of water to lather soap Todd The colour of water samples from Chabere and Suleteng communities pointed to a possible contamination from surface water runoffs since water from these communities were also found to contain faecal coliforms. Groundwater samples were collected from 24 locations of the study area using Global Positioning System GPS during the month of June and February Mean and median value of alkalinity were slightly greater in tubewell water than borewell water. Low positive correlation of chloride on total hardness, total alkalinity, EC, and magnesium was seen. Although there were no significant signs of leaching in all over studied area, contamination was evident in certain industrial surroundings with iron, steel, textile and paints work [ 31 ]. Also, areas most likely to have elevated concentrations of aluminium are those where the ground waters are acidic, particularly from the Birimian province where this study was undertaken Pelig-Ba
Fluoride occurs as natural constituent and is one of the main trace elements in groundwater. The average concentration of phosphate in summer samples was more than that of winter samples.
Full size table Physical characteristics Out of groundwater samples, 34