Louis althusser lenin and philosophy and other essays for scholarships

But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other.

louis althusser on the reproduction of capitalism

Althusser moves on to develop a unique theory of ideology and the subject. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

They feel and know that Lenin is profoundly indifferent to their objections.

Ideology and ideological state apparatuses

We can now say it. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. But French academic philosophy was not mistaken in its radical refusal to learn anything from politicians and politics, and therefore from Lenin. Historical materialism thus means: science of history. They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add — i. They feel and know that Lenin is profoundly indifferent to their objections. His contribution is enormous if we are really prepared to weigh up the effects of something which has to often been taken for a mere shade of opinion. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family.

This first point enables us to understand the second. Engels tries, but even if we are prepared not to take him literally the least that can be asked where a non- specialist is concerned it is only too clear that he is missing something essential.

I do not think so.

louis althusser education

They are a kind of hero. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.

There can be no slacking and no aberrant behaviour.

Lenin and philosophy and other essays pdf

If Marx really has opened up a new continent to scientific knowledge, his scientific discovery ought to induce some kind of important reorganization in philosophy. Indeed, it takes some courage to admit that French philosophy, from Maine de Biran and Cousin to Bergson and Brunschvicg, by way of Ravaisson, Hamelin, Lachelier and Boutroux, can only be salvaged from its own history by the few great minds against whom it set its face, like Comte and Durkheim, or buried in oblivion, like Cournot and Couturat; by a few conscientious historians of philo- sophy, historians of science and epistemologists who worked patiently and silently to educate those to whom in part French philosophy owes its renaissance in the last thirty years. Has he now become a Marxist classic? Now it so happens that on a few rare occasions, Lenin was forced by the exigencies of philosophical polemic to produce a kind of definition of his philosophical practice. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one e. Justice: his philosophical work will then be perfected. It follows that the philosophical category of matter, which is conjointly a Thesis of existence and a Thesis of objectivity, can never be confused with the contents of the scientific concepts of matter. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church the religious Ideological State Apparatus accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. We surely owe this service and this homage to the man who was lucky enough to be born in time for politics, but unfortunate enough to be born too early for philosophy. Philosophically, we should say: an installation in power is without an object. If we absolutely must go on talking of a lag: it is we who are lagging behind Lenin.

Marx, in Althusser's view, was subject in his earlier writings to the ruling ideology of his day.

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Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays by Louis Althusser