Genetic cloning

When the bacteria multiply and replicate the recombinant DNA, the number of gene copies also increases, making gene or protein detection easier. The hope is that someday this protein can be purified from the milk and given to humans whose blood does not clot properly.

types of cloning

Open in a separate window If is calculated as the variance divided by the square of the mean number of children. Food and Drug Administration FDA decided in January that meat and milk from cloned animals, such as cattle, pigs and goats, are as safe as those from non-cloned animals.

Many restriction enzymes make staggered cuts in the two strands of DNA, such that the cut ends have a 2- to 4-nucleotide single-stranded overhang.

Another possible use of cloned animals is for testing new drugs and treatment strategies.

How is cloning done

While the U. The end result may, nevertheless, be extinction—more than Since then, there have been many breakthroughs in cloning. They were shocked again to start division. The fourth step shows that this procedure takes place many times, resulting in an increase in copies of the original DNA. A deleterious gene that might have been reduced in frequency or eliminated from the population, owing to the death or reduced fertility of the carrier, will now persist in the population and be added to its load of hereditary diseases. Thus, about 3—6 million nucleotides are different between the two genomes of each human individual, which is a lot of genetic polymorphism. Cells are broken open using a detergent solution containing buffering compounds. He published the findings in a Chinese science journal. Clones do not always look identical. Proteins that are produced from recombinant DNA molecules are called recombinant proteins. The 2 strands are then annealed at approximately 50 degrees Celsius using primers. Besides cattle and sheep, other mammals that have been cloned from somatic cells include: cat, deer, dog, horse, mule, ox, rabbit and rat. Plasmids occur naturally in bacterial populations such as Escherichia coli and have genes that can contribute favorable traits to the organism, such as antibiotic resistance the ability to be unaffected by antibiotics. The first successfully cloned horse, Prometea , took attempts.

This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning". Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line. The classic genetic method compares insects that cannot fly with insects that can fly, and observes that the non-flying insects have lost wings.

The resulting DNA, because it is made up of long polymers, forms a gelatinous mass. The stem cells could be used to research and ultimately provide therapeutic applications, such as replacing damaged tissues.

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Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations