The paper concludes with an appeal for integrated corruption risk assessment tools and accessible reporting. Only a sector-wide lens will allow identification of the linkages and dependencies within the criminal justice chain, providing a basis for targeted reform efforts and a comprehensive anti-corruption strategy.
While some basic risk management approaches are noted, the emphasis is on analysis and assessment of problems.
While assessments based on the Risk-Needs-Responsivity RNR model have been quite useful in determining high- and low-risk offenders there is still some controversy regarding the wide-scale use of assessments in the criminal justice system. Sections of this report following a summary include: an overview of risk and needs assessment; RNR principles; critiques of risk and needs assessments—making judgment about individuals based on group tendencies, the separation of assessment of risk from assessment of needs, and the potential for discriminatory effects; and select issues for congress regarding—the use of risk and needs assessment in federal prisons, the exclusion of certain inmates from earning additional time credits, whether priority should be given to high-risk offenders, the use of assessment in sentencing, and whether the emphasis on punishment should be decreased.
The proposed system would exclude inmates convicted of certain offenses from being eligible to earn additional time credits … In general, research suggests that the most commonly used assessment instruments can, with a moderate level of accuracy, predict who is at risk for violent recidivism.
Michelsen Institute U4 Issue 62 p.
In using the available set of tools to assess corruption risks in criminal trials and appeals, the greatest challenge for practitioners is finding the relevant parts of general assessment tools that assess the particular corruption risks.
Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System Accession Number: Document "There have been legislative proposals to implement a risk and needs assessment system in federal prisons.
The system would be used to place inmates in rehabilitative programs. In many cases, however, the drivers of corruption are the same across all countries.
Under the proposed system some inmates would be eligible to earn additional time credits for participating in rehabilitative programs that reduce their risk of recidivism. It also suggests that no single instrument is superior to any other when it comes to predictive validity" p.